Yellow-Throated Vireo, Plate 79. John James Audubon (1785 - 1851). From the Julius Bien edition of Audubon’s Birds of America, New York: 1858-1860. Chromolithograph on paper. 25 x 18 inches sheet. In 1858, seven years after his father’s death, John Woodhouse Audubon hired Julius Bien, a lithographer in New York, to produce a second set of double-elephant-folio sized Birds of America. The plan was to reissue all 435 prints from the Havell edition, but this time to produce them in the U.S. and to use a new technique called chromolithography to make the prints. The work on the Bien edition, or second edition, continued until 1860 and the outbreak of the Civil War. Because a large majority of the customer base was cut off, the project nearly bankrupted the Audubon family. In the end, only 150 of the 435 prints were created before the project was cancelled.