King George III
Supplies His Troops in North America
Dated One Month After the Signing of
The Declaration of Independence
& Countersigned Sir Frederick North &
Charles Townsend Dated "August 1, 1776"
KING GEORGE III (1738-1820). King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1760 until union of the two countries in1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820. Defeated France in the Seven Years' War, Lost Britain's American Colonies in the American Revolutionary War of Independence, further wars against France from 1793 concluded in the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815.
August 1st, 1776-Dated American Revolutionary War Period, Historic Content Manuscript Document Signed, (King) "George III" at St. James' Palace (London), measuring 14.5" x 9", Choice Very Fine. No doubt in reaction to the newly Signed American "DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE" just one month prior, King George III of Britain sends funds to supply this forces under General Howe, stationed in his American Colonies. Addressed to Richard Rigby, Paymaster General, "of our Guards and Garrisons and Land Forces," ordering payment of 3,656 to John Durand, Esq., a contractor who has supplied victuals... "for the use of the Forces serving under General Howe in America...". Also Countersigned "North," by Sir Frederick North as Prime Minister, and by "C. (Charles) Townsend" (author of the "Townsend Acts"). A particularly relevant item with a superb date, occurring less than one month after the signing of the Declaration of Independence. One of the best, most impressive and timely American Revolutionary War British Forces related Signed Documents we've encountered. General William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe, was the British Army Commander-in-Chief of all British forces during the American War of Independence. Beautifully handwritten in a clear notarial hand, and having a magnificent huge "George R" signature measuring about over 2.5" long by 1.75" tall at the upper left making this important American Revolutionary War Document excellent for display. Ex: Christie's, November 12, 1997 with its original folio.
William Howe, in full William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe, (born August 10, 1729-died July 12, 1814, Plymouth, Devonshire, England), was the Commander-in-Chief of the British Army in North America (1776-1778) who, despite several military successes, failed to destroy the American Continental Army and stem the American Revolution.
Brother of Adm. Richard Lord Howe, William Howe had been active in North America during the last French and Indian War (1754-63), in which he earned a reputation as one of the army's most brilliant young generals. Sent in 1775 to reinforce Gen. Thomas Gage in the Siege of Boston, he led the left wing in three costly but finally successful assaults in the Battle of Bunker Hill.
Assuming supreme command the following year, Howe transferred his forces southward and captured the strategic port city of New York, severely defeating the Americans at the Battle of Long Island. A competent tactician, he preferred maneuver to battle, partly to conserve scarce British manpower, but also in the hopes of demonstrating British military superiority so convincingly that the Americans would accept negotiation and reconciliation with Britain.
When active operations were resumed in June 1777, Howe moved his troops to the south bank of the Delaware River and won two successive victories over the Americans at the Battle of Brandywine (September) and the Battle of Germantown (October).
His next winter was spent in the occupation of Philadelphia. Howe recognized his failure, however, to destroy the modest force of Gen. George Washington, then encamped at nearby Valley Forge. His Pennsylvania campaign had furthermore exposed the troops of Gen. John Burgoyne in upper New York state and led to the disastrous British defeat at the Battle of Saratoga that fall. Under increasing criticism from the British press and government, Howe resigned his command before the start of operations in 1778.
Returning to England, Howe saw no more active service but held a number of important home commands. He succeeded to the viscountcy on the death of his brother in 1799; upon his own death, without issue, the peerage expired.
The Townshend Acts were a series of measures, passed by the British Parliament in 1767, that taxed goods imported to the American colonies. ... Early attempts, such as the Stamp Act of 1765 - which taxed colonists for every piece of paper they used - were met with widespread protests in America.
The Townshend Acts were actually a series of taxes and laws imposed upon the colonists. The first, the Townshend Revenue Act, placed a tax on glass, paint, oil, lead, paper, and tea. Other bills included in the Townshend Acts contributed to the colonists' angry reaction. The Townshend Acts, passed in 1767 and 1768, were designed to raise revenue for the British Empire by taxing its North American colonies. They were met with widespread protest in the colonies, especially among merchants in Boston.
The taxes that were imposed by the Townshend Acts of 1767 were important because they helped to reignite anger in the colonies against England. Just the year before, Parliament had repealed the Stamp Tax after heated protests from the colonies. In 1767, however, Charles Townshend decided to impose new taxes.