German, 1891–1976. Max Ernst was born in Germany in 1891 as Maximilian Maria Ernst and lived his life as a painter, sculptor and a forerunner of the Automatism movement of Surrealism. Under this technique, irrationality in art flourished and was used to express the psychological aspects of the human unconscious. Ernst was also closely affiliated with Dada in this regard. His paintings, sculptures and prints depicted surreal, nightmarish images that were rooted in his childhood anxieties. The artist was an inventor of the Frottage technique and demonstrated a profound interest in Freudian psychoanalysis, as evidenced in the Revolution by Night (1923), in which he substitutes the image of Mary and Christ with a depiction of himself and his father.